Our research interests center mainly around clinical management for the emergently ill and critically ill surgical patient. In these areas, we have studied and will continue to study a variety of different topics related to prognosis and outcomes. We have examined the value of different laboratory markers in improving the degree of resuscitation of these patients and the influences of gender effects on outcomes in these critically ill surgical patients. Additional areas of interest to us include the development of improved treatment strategies for the management of emergent surgical conditions such as pancreatitis and appendicitis. Finally, we are also carefully studying the ethical treatment of critically ill surgical patients in regards to end-of-life care.