Units

Cardiovascular System

Pulmonary System

Gastrointestinal System

Kidney

Endocrine

Reproduction

Hematology-Oncology

Dermatology

Patient Care & Physicianship

Brain & Behavior

Musculoskeletal & Rheumatology

Infectious Disease




Cardiovascular System

The first month of Health, Illness, and Disease focuses on the cardiovascular system and explores the normal physiology and functioning of the heart and vascular system and the pathologic diseases that can affect them. You will learn about the electrical activity of the heart, the coupling of this activity to contraction of the heart, and the blood supply and valves that keep this pump working effectively. You will learn how the heart is studied through different imaging modalities, as well as the basic
skills of interpreting core elements of a 12-lead electrocardiogram. In PBL
sessions, small groups, and labs, you will discuss the elements of a cardiac examination and explore how to diagnose patients with arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The development of the heart and surgical and interventional techniques that treat various forms of cardiovascular disease will also be discussed.


Unit Leaders:

Robert Kim, MD; rjk9003@med.cornell.edu; 646-962-5558

Laurence Palmer, PhD; lgpalm@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6355


Cardiovascular System Learning Objectives


Textbook:

L. Lilly, Pathophysiology of Heart Disease, 5th ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (Required)


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Pulmonary System

The second unit of Health Illness and Disease is The Pulmonary system, which focuses on the structure and function of the lung in health and disease. The section begins with the basic physiology of the lung, including development and early origins of lung disease, and builds on this foundation to study the pharmacology and lung pathology in obstructive diseases, interstitial lung diseases, vascular diseases, pneumonia, and lung cancer.


Unit Leaders:

Abraham Sanders MD; abs2001@med.cornell.edu; 646-962-5558

Randi Silver, PhD; rbsilve@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6354

Meredith Turetz, MD; mlt9001@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6354


Pulmonary System Learning Objectives


Textbook:

J. West, Pulmonary Pathophysiology, 8th ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (Required)


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Gastrointestinal System

The Gastrointestinal unit of the Health, Illness and Disease segment will cover the normal structure and function of the GI system, as well as its major disease states and pathologies. The unit is built around nine clinical cases, each of which emphasizes one aspect of gastroenterology. These cases serve as a scaffold for discussions of physiology, histology, pathophysiology, pathology, and pharmacology of the relevant organs. We will also illustrate pertinent imaging modalities and introduce the abdominal examination. Social and ethical issues will also be discussed in relation to the unit.


Unit Leaders:

Amir Soumekh, MD; ams2041@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-4014

Laurence Palmer, PhD; lgpalm@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6355


Gastrointestinal System Learning Objectives


Textbook:

M. Feldman, Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 9th ed., Saunders/Elsevier (Recommended)


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Kidney

The Kidney unit is divided into three sections, partitioned roughly into the three weeks of the course. The first section is heavily anatomical, including urology, urinary tract infections, renal pathology (including glomerular pathology and renal tumors), and disorders of glomerular function (proteinuria and acute renal failure). The second section is anchored to kidney transport processes (normal and abnormal): Na+ (as it relates to hypertension and edema), K+, acid-base (including the interplay of respiratory and metabolic disturbances), water metabolism, and renal calcium handling (specifically kidney stone formation). This section will introduce the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment of fluid and electrolyte disorders. The third section will include renal development and pediatric nephrology, but the major focus will be the failing kidney and manifestations and treatment of chronic renal failure (dialysis and transplant). In this context, sessions will be devoted to examining ethical issues inherent in kidney donation, and in the decision to start or terminate dialysis.


Unit Leaders:

Thangamani Muthukumar, MD; msuthan@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-4498

Laurence Palmer, PhD; lgpalm@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6355


Kidney Learning Objectives


Textbook:

B. Denker & H. Rennke, Renal Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 4th ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (Required)


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Endocrine

Endocrinology is the study of hormones, the glands that secrete them, and their actions throughout the body. In the Endocrine Unit of HID, we will focus on the normal structure and function of the various glands, including thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroids, as well as disease states arising from abnormal glandular function, including diabetes mellitus and metabolic bone disease. Students will become comfortable with the evaluation and management of various endocrine diseases. Teaching modalities will include lectures, small group case discussions, patient panels, and laboratories.


Unit Leaders:

Aaron Schulman, MD; aas9008@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6290

Felicia Mendelsohn-Curanaj, MD; fam9025@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6290


Endocrine Learning Objectives


Textbook:

S. Melmed & K. Polonsky, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 12th ed., Elsevier (Recommended)


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Reproduction

In the HID Reproduction Unit, students will acquire a deep understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the male and female reproductive systems. The Unit logically follows the time-line of male and female development. It begins with an exploration of the differential embryonic origins of the male and female genital tracts. Male and female pubertal milestones and the underlying physiology and pathophysiology of the pubertal transition are presented, along with male and female disorders of sexual development. Students then delve into male reproductive physiology, with a focus on spermatogenesis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular access. Students will gain an understanding of male sexual functioning and pharmacologic agents affecting male reproductive functioning. Benign and malignant disorders of the prostate are examined. Histologic and pathologic sections of male GU organs are presented in lecture and small group sessions.

The second half of the Unit focuses on the female reproductive system. Students gain an intricate knowledge of the female menstrual cycle and the nuances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, along with reasons for HPO axis malfunction resulting in amenorrhea. This discussion is punctuated by a detailed overview of menopause and the physiologic processes underlying the menopausal transition. Fertility and infertility are examined, leading into a detailed discussion of healthy pregnancy and disorders unique to pregnancy. Pharmaceuticals commonly employed and/or avoided in pregnancy are also examined. Histologic sections of the female reproductive tissues in health and disease are presented and will be put in context by presentation of the most common female reproductive cancers. Moreover, the various radiologic imaging modalities specific to the pelvis are reviewed.

Human reproduction, in all aspects, is a truly fascinating area of study, and we look forward to sharing our field with you.


Unit Leaders:

Pak Chung, MD; pakchu@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-1831

David Reichman, MD; der2005@med.cornell.edu; 646-962-7499


Reproduction Learning Objectives


Textbook:

L. Speroff & M. Fritz, Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (Required)


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Hematology-Oncology

This unit focuses on the hematological system, which includes bone marrow, blood, blood and lymphatic vasculature, spleen, and lymph nodes. Normal physiology, embryology, and metabolic functions will be explored, with an emphasis on red and white blood cells, bone marrow, hematological stem cells, and hemoglobin. Pathological processes affecting this organ system will be explained. The unit will be divided into two major sections: "Benign Hematology" and "Malignant Hematology," with separate quizzes for each section. Diagnostic criteria, examination procedures (e.g., the bone marrow exam), genetic tests, radiologic and scanning procedures, and other laboratory tests will be explained. Basic pharmacology of anti-neoplastic drugs will be included. Detailed clinical therapeutics are beyond the scope of this unit.


Unit Leaders:

Roger Pearse, MD; rnp2001@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-3964

Ray Pastore, MD; rdp2001@med.cornell.edu


Hematology-Oncology Learning Objectives


Textbook:

V. Hoffbrand & P. Moss, Essential Haematology, 6th ed., Wiley-Blackwell (Required)


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Dermatology

The Dermatology Unit of Health, Illness and Disease will explore the spectrum of dermatologic diseases. We will focus on the normal structure and function of the skin, as well as the pathophysiology of inflammatory conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, acne); autoimmune diseases (e.g., vitiligo); neoplastic diseases (e.g., melanoma); infectious diseases (e.g., herpes, syphilis); and genetic disorders (e.g., epidermolysis bullosa). The relationship between clinical morphology of skin disorders and dermatopathology will also be discussed. The skin is a marker and window to systemic disease, and students will begin to appreciate and study cutaneous manifestations of internal disease. Visual accessibility allows examination of the gross pathology of the skin without complex equipment, and students will master the approach to visual inspection of the skin.


Unit Leaders:

Patricia Myskowski, MD; pam2024@med.cornell.edu; 646-888-6018

Jonathan Zippin, PhD; jhzippin@med.cornell.edu; 646-962-3376


Dermatology Learning Objectives


Textbook:

J. Marks & J. Miller, Principles of Dermatology, 5th ed., Saunders/Elsevier (Required)


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Patient Care & Physicianship

The Patient Care-Physicianship portion of Health, Illness and Disease continues the development of the core concepts in patient care and working as a physician that was initiated in the Essentials Principles of Medicine segment. Patient Care focuses on clinical evaluation skills, including the history and physical examination, communication, principles of clinical reasoning, epidemiology, biostatistics, evidence-based medicine, health-care delivery systems, and patient safety. Physicianship embraces the doctor-patient relationship, professionalism, leadership and teamwork, ethics, humanism, and reflective practice.


Unit Leaders:

Juliet Aizer, MD, MPH; aizerj@hss.edu


Patient Care & Physicianship Learning Objectives


Textbooks:

JAMA: The Rational Clinical Examination (Required)

R.F. Fletcher & S.W. Fletcher, Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentials , 5th ed., Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (Recommended)

B. Kestenbaum, Epidemiology and Biostatistics: An Introduction to Clinical Research, 1st ed., Springer (Recommended)

G. Guyatt, D. Rennie, M. Meade & D. Cook, Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill (Required)

J. Coulehan & M. Block, The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice, 5th ed., F.A Davis Company (Required)

L. Bickley, Bates Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 11th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health (Required)

R. LeBlond, D. Brown & M. Suneja, DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination , 10th ed., McGraw Hill Medical (Recommended)


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Brain & Behavior

Brain and Behavior, the first unit of Health, Illness and Disease Part II, is an integrated unit that ranges from basic neuroscience to neurological diagnosis and psychopathology. The faculty is drawn from the Departments of Neurology & Neuroscience, Pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology & Biophysics, Psychiatry, and Radiology. The course synthesizes basic science and clinical aspects of information about the central nervous system, utilizing a range of teaching techniques, with an emphasis on active student participation. In addition to attending lectures, laboratory sessions and tutorials, students engage in problem-based analysis of classical neurological and psychiatric disorders, and examine individual patients in clinic settings. The objective is both the acquisition of fundamental knowledge and the development of diagnostic skills. Acquaintance with contemporary research ideas and techniques is fostered by journal club sessions that review papers from the current literature. Computer-based educational and research tools enhance many of these activities.


Unit Leaders:

Peter Marzuk, MD; pmmarzuk@med.cornell.edu; 212-962-2820

Bernice Grafstein, PhD; bgraf@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-6364

Joseph Safdieh, MD; jos9046@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-3113


Brain & Behavior Learning Objectives


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Musculoskeletal & Rheumatology

The Musculoskeletal and Rheumatology unit in Health, Illness, and Disease will present the multifaceted relationship between the connective tissues of the body that are involved in mobility and the often-associated immune and inflammatory states involved in homeostasis. The development of the connective tissues and their structure-functional relationships will be explored. Skeletal remodeling and function of joints will be emphasized. The effects of the immune system in responding to pathogens and injury will be elucidated, including the interplay of the adaptive and innate systems. We will investigate the generation of autoimmunity and autoinflammatory states, including genetic factors, as well as environmental and microbial triggers. Understanding the complex cytokine milieu of inflammatory and immune homeostasis and disease can lead to appropriate targets for treatment.


Unit Leader:

Edward Parrish, MD; ejp2001@med.cornell.edu; 212-606-1743

Juliet Aizer, MD, MPH; aizerj@hss.edu


Musculoskeletal & Rheumatology Learning Objectives


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Infectious Disease

The last few weeks of Health, Illness, and Disease focus on the study of infectious diseases. The students will have acquired knowledge about important pathogens associated with individual organ systems throughout the prior HID learning units. This dedicated ID unit will fill in the knowledge gaps and introduce particularly complicated pathogens that affect multiple organ systems and that cause systemic infections. The students will learn the characteristics of individual pathogens and the host immune system that enable the onset of infection and that are responsible for the pathogenesis and the clinical manifestations of diseases. They will also acquire the skill to list systemically the differential of possible infectious agents that cause different clinical syndromes and to apply appropriate tests to make definitive diagnosis. Finally, they will become familiar with treatment (e.g., antimicrobial agents) and prevention (e.g., immunization) strategies for infectious diseases.


Unit Leaders:

Kristen Marks, MD; markskr@med.cornell.edu; 212-746-4180

Neal Lue, MD; nflou@med.cornell.edu


Infectious Disease Learning Objectives


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