The first week of Essential Principles of Medicine is dedicated to Pharmacology, which is the study of how drugs work. You will learn the fundamental principles governing how drugs affect the body and how the body affects drugs. You will learn to appreciate that drugs also have undesirable affects and you will develop an understanding of the relationship between desired and undesirable effects. Finally, you will develop an appreciation for the necessity of regulation and oversight and be afforded insight into the problems inherent in developing new therapeutics. This unit is designed to provide you with a foundation to understand how to use drugs therapeutically; these principles will be essential as you learn about specific drugs throughout your medical school curriculum and throughout your life as a practicing physician.
Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 13th ed., Katzung and Trevor
Information that has become available from genetic and genomic discoveries has the potential to revolutionize the way that physicians and other health care providers evaluate, diagnose and treat their patients. To harness the power of these discoveries, students of medicine need to understand fundamental genetic concepts of DNA biology, the chromosomal basis of inheritance, how genes are regulated, how genes operate and interact with the environment, and the role of genes and chromosomes in both rare and common diseases. The Genetics Module will provide you with a foundation and a context for material covered in later modules of EPOM and will also serve as an introduction to key concepts in clinical medicine, public health and medical research.
Chris Cunniff, MD; firstname.lastname@example.org
Nussbaum, McInnes and Willard, Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine, 8th Ed., Elsevier (available through Clinical Key)
The third unit of Essential Principles of Medicine – Cells, Tissues, and Control Systems – focuses on the structure and function of cells, how they communicate by chemical and electrical means, and the events that occur in early development. The emphasis is on basic cell functions, including: the cell as the fundamental, membrane-delimited unit of living organisms; the importance of electrolyte and water homeostasis; the transport functions of the cell membrane, which underlie cellular homeostasis and the generation of membrane potentials; the communication among and within cells, which regulates and coordinates their function(s) – whether by chemical communication between or within cells, or by electrical signaling along a cell; the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the enforcement of quality control; the morphological appearance of cells and the extracellular matrix and cell motility; which leads to the final section on early development.
A Text and Atlas, 7th ed., Ross, et al. (Required)
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th ed., Alberts, et al. (Required)
The Metabolism and Nutrition Unit is presented during Weeks 9-11 of Essential Principles of Medicine. In this unit, you will discuss how the body handles carbohydrates, fat, proteins, and nucleic acids to generate and store energy. You will learn about anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as the variety of chemical interconversions through which, for example, molecules such as glucose are converted into ATP or into a form from which energy can be derived during periods of fasting. The Unit will conclude with a discussion of the serious health consequences when metabolic pathways fail or when their regulation is affected; metabolic dysregulation, which characterizes diseases such as diabetes and obesity, is increasingly relevant to an understanding of cancer.
Biochemistry: Lippincott's Illustrated Review Series, 6th ed., Harvey and Ferrier (Required)
Lehninger's Principles of Biochemistry, 6th ed., Nelson and Cox (Recommended)
The Injury, Infection, Immunity, and Repair learning unit introduces the principles of general pathology, immunology, and microbiology so that students can appreciate the individual disciplines, yet also see how they are integrated within the context of disease. In this regard, the weekly PBL case introduces the theme of the week, which includes topics from the three core basic science disciplines. These topics are then developed and expanded upon by each discipline in lectures, labs, and small-group discussions. In addition to the core disciplines, the study of pharmacology continues with an introduction to antibiotic, antiviral, and antifungal drug classes. Finally, the specific pharmacology of several prototype drug classes are presented in relation to the PBL exercises.
Abbas, A., Lichtman, A., Pillai, S.: Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System, 4th Ed (available online)
Katzung, B., Trevor, A.: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 13th Ed (available online)
Kumar, V., Abbas, A. & Aster, J.: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Ed (available online)
Levinson, W.: Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 13th Ed (available online)
The last week of the course deals with Neoplasia, a topic that includes benign tumors, pre-malignant lesions, and malignant cancers. You will learn how genetic and environmental factors contribute to cancer risk, how tumor growth is initiated, and how tumor cells gain characteristics that allow progression to malignancy. Current models of the biology underlying metastasis and the role of stem cells in tumorigenesis will be discussed. Major principles underlying conventional and more novel cancer therapies will be presented, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy, together with the promise and challenges of "precision cancer medicine." The unit will conclude with discussion of the potential for improved control of cancer in future.
Cancer is chosen as the final topic in this course for two reasons: first, because of its paramount importance as a cause of mortality; and second, because it exemplifies a disease whose understanding and treatment requires knowledge of a broad range of disciplines. These include genetics, genomics, cell and tissue biology, metabolism, inflammation, biochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, the subject draws upon all the previous learning units of this segment and re-emphasizes their relevance in the battle against disease.
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th ed., Alberts, et al. (Required)
The Biology of Cancer, R.A. Weinberg (Recommended)
The Gross Anatomy unit of the Essential Principles of Medicine is scheduled for 1 or 2 afternoon sessions per week throughout the first semester of the medical curriculum. It is organized around a regional approach to anatomy, but time is also spent throughout the course to review information from a systemic standpoint. The regional approach is divided into the following three sections: Back, Shoulder Region, Upper Extremity, Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Perineum, Lower Extremity and Head and Neck.
The Unit is conducted by laboratory introductions and lectures and full body dissection. Body imaging using MRI's, CT's and Plain radiographs, are also an integral part of the course.
Clinical faculty are involved in teaching during the dissection laboratory sessions, thus emphasizing the clinical correlations pertinent to the area of dissection.
At the end of this course, students will be able to analyze, integrate and apply relevant anatomical and embryological information pertaining to the clinical settings essential for appropriate patient care.
K. Moore, A. Agur, & A. Dalley, Essential Clinical Anatomy, 5th ed., Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Required)
F.H. Netter, Atlas of Human Anatomy, 6th ed., Elsevier Saunders (Required)
The overarching goal of the PC/P unit is to help you develop fundamental knowledge, skills and attitudes related to the care of patients and the role of the physician. Specifically, you will learn the basics of clinical evaluation, the doctor-patient relationship, biopsychosocial diversity, reflective practice, and related topics. The PC/P unit is integrated with the EPOM science units and with more advanced skills in future semesters.
J. Coulehan & M. Block, The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice, 5th ed. F.A. Davis Co. (Required)
L. Bickley, Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History-Taking, 11th ed., Wolters Kluwer (Required)
R. LeBlond, D. Brown, & M. Suneja, DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination, 10th ed., McGraw Hill Medical (Recommended)
J. Orient, Sapira's Art and Science of Bedside Diagnosis, 4th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott, Williams, Wilkins (Recommended)