Recently in News and Announcements Category

We've finished two more rounds of digitization, completing our second Digital Conversion MicroGrant from the Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO). Now available are the Society of the Lying-In Hospital Annual Reports, 1951-1965; the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences Announcements, 1989-1996, 1999-2000, 2002-2003, 2005-2007; the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center Annual Reports, 1990-1997; and the Cornell University Medical College Announcements, 1985-1993. If you visit the Medical Center Archives' Digital Collections page on the Internet Archive you will find thousands of pages of material documenting the NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, the Weill Cornell Medical College, and their numerous antecedent and affiliated institutions. Here's a screenshot of the homepage. IA_MCA_screenshot.jpg From here you can navigate through the digital publications (especially helpful is the option to search by subject/keyword), you can see what is the most downloaded item of the previous week (Coming in second last week was the Cornell University-New York Hospital School of Nursing announcement, 1955-1960. The School of Nursing was closed in 1979. By the way, we have an extensive collection documenting the School of Nursing.), or you can find out what are the most downloaded items from our digital publications (it's the Society of the New York Hospital Annual Report, 1960-1962 with 499 downloads).

From our homepage on the Internet Archive you can also access the extensive Medical Heritage Library (MHL). The MHL is a digital curation collaborative among some of the world's leading libraries who are dedicated to giving access to historical resources in medicine. To search the MHL, just click on the breadcrumb navigation near the top of the page (highlighted in green above).

Our Digital Collections represent just a fraction of our extensive archives. For information about these collections, questions about any of the other archival collections at the Medical Center Archives, or to set up an appointment for research, please email us at email-archives@med.cornell.edu or phone us at 212.746.6072. We look forward to assisting you in your research.

The Heberden Society and the Division of Medical Ethics jointly present:

Paul A. Lombardo, PhD, JD
Bobby Lee Cook Professor of Law, Georgia State University College of Law

'The Craze for Legal Proceedings': Schloendorff v. New York Hospital, 1914

Thursday, April 10, 2014 5:00 p.m. (light refreshments at 4:45pm)
Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue
Uris Faculty Room (A-126)

Dr. Lombardo's lecture will be the final Heberden Society lecture in the 2013-14 series. It will also be part of the Division of Medical Ethics Seminar Series, "Perspectives in Medical Ethics".

2014 is the centennial of Schloendorff v. Society of the New York Hospital (1914), the case in which Benjamin Cardozo wrote one of the most recognized lines in medical jurisprudence: "Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done to his own body." Mary Schloendorff's lawsuit focused on the claim that doctors had operated on her without consent. This presentation will focus on newly discovered archival records that show the New York Hospital's defense strategy in the Schloendorff case. This new material reframes Schloendorff as an early skirmish in the 20th Century medical malpractice wars.

Paul A. Lombardo is a lawyer/historian who currently serves as a Senior Advisor to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, where he has participated in studies such as "Ethically Impossible": STD Research in Guatemala from 1946-1948 (2011), Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research (2011), and Privacy and Progress in Whole Genome Sequencing (2012). He has published extensively on topics in health law, medico-legal history, and bioethics and is best known for his work on the legal history of the American eugenics movement. His books include: Fletcher's Clinical Ethics, (3rd ed.)( 2005); Three Generations, No Imbeciles: Eugenics, the Supreme Court and Buck v. Bell; (2008) and A Century of Eugenics in America: From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era (2011).

The Heberden Society, which seeks to promote an interest in the history of medicine, was founded at the medical center in 1975. With funding from the Office of the Dean, the society sponsors a series of lectures during each academic year.

The Division of Medical Ethics Seminar Series is a CME activity.

A CME activity:

Target Audience: Weill-Cornell physicians in medical ethics, other interested physicians and health care providers, and students.

Course Objectives: This CME activity is intended to lead to improved patient care and safety based upon an assessment of gaps in physician knowledge, competence and performance. By the conclusion of this series, physicians should learn new content relevant to their practice that informs and thereby improves the clinical care they provide.

CME Accreditation and Credit Designation Statements

Weill Cornell Medical College is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Weill Cornell Medical College designates this live activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s) ™ . Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Faculty Disclosure: It is the policy of Weill Cornell Medical College to adhere to ACCME Criteria, Policies, and Standards for Commercial Support and content validation in order to ensure fair balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all its sponsored programs. All faculty participating in sponsored programs are expected to disclose relevant financial relationships pertaining to their contribution to the activity, and any discussions of off-label or investigational uses of approved commercial products or devices, or of any products or devices not yet approved in the United States. WCMC CME activities are intended to be evidence-based and free of commercial bias. If you feel this is not the case, please call the Office of Continuing Medical Education at 212-746-2631 to anonymously express any concerns.

Dr. Lombardo has nothing to disclose and does not intend to discuss off-label or investigational use of products or services.

Course Director, Dr. Joseph Fins, and the Planning Committee: Cathleen Acres has nothing to disclose.

WCMC does not accept industry support for any regularly scheduled series. Any exceptions to this are approved by the CME Committee, and will be disclosed prior to this presentation.

WCMC is accessible for individuals with disabilities or special needs. Participants with special needs are requested to contact the Office of CME at 212.746.2631.

Evaluations for Regularly Scheduled Series (RSS) are conducted periodically throughout the year. If you have questions or concerns regarding the content or presentation of these sessions (including any apparent conflict of interest), please contact the Division of Medical Ethics / 212-746-4246or concerns regarding the content or presentation of these sessions (including any apparent conflict of interest), please contact the Division of Medical Ethics / 212-746-4246.

We've completed another round of digitization, this time focusing on two historic hospitals that played key roles in providing maternal health services in New York City.

Previously, we digitized the annual reports of the Society of the Lying-In Hospital of the City of New-York for the years 1890-1931. Now available are the annual reports from 1932-1950, a pivotal time for the hospital. In 1932, the Society of the Lying-In Hospital of the City of New-York became affiliated with the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center (now NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center), forming the Hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In 1947, the Lying-In Hospital legally merged with New York Hospital. The history of the Society of the Lying-In Hospital of the City of New-York dates back to October 1798 when Dr. David Hosack issued an appeal to establish the Lying-In Hospital for poor women who could not afford medical care and nursing during their pregnancy. It was opened in August 1799 at 2 Cedar Street.

In 1801, the board of the hospital made an agreement with the board of the New York Hospital to operate a lying-in ward at the New York Hospital. Both poor and paying mothers were accepted there. This arrangement lasted until 1822. The ward was closed on June 1822 and then reopened in May 1823. They parted ways in 1827. For many years the Lying-In Hospital did not have a building. In 1887, various dispensaries were operated around New York. John Pierpont Morgan became interested in the hospital in 1893. In May 1894, the hospital purchased the Hamilton Fish Mansion on Second Avenue and 17th street. It opened in November 1894 with 32 beds. Morgan gave money to build a new hospital in 1899. The Hamilton Fish Mansion was torn down and the new hospital was erected on the site. It opened on January 22, 1902. The hospital was primarily a maternity hospital but a small gynecological service performing surgeries was also available. The Lying-in-Hospital's board made an agreement with the New York Hospital on June 19, 1928 to be absorbed by the New York Hospital and become the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at the new medical center. Below is an exterior view of the Lying-In Hospital building that opened in 1902. Today, the building, located on 2nd Avenue between 17th and 18th Streets, still looks pretty much the same as it did in 1902.

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Also digitized are the annual reports of the New-York Asylum for Lying-In Women. The Asylum was founded in 1823 to provide care for "destitute respectable women in confinement." It shared in the operation of a ward at New York Hospital until its withdrawal in 1825 to separate facilities on Greene Street. In 1830, the institution moved to 85 Marion Street, known then as Orange Street, where it remained until its move in 1885 to 139 Second Avenue.

While the Asylum did not discriminate on the basis of religion or national origin, it was very strict in its requirement of "respectability." Patients were referred to the Asylum by district physicians, scattered through the city, and were screened for admission by the Board of Managers on the basis of proof of marriage and character references. Those whose characters were not "perfectly unexceptionable" were rejected. As the board said in its 1831 annual report, "to throw the institution open to all...would confine its operation to the vicious alone. For how could the virtuous, married women...willingly become the associate and fellow-pensioner of the degraded and abandoned?" The "vicious" could, however, receive care at home after the establishment of the Outdoor Department in 1831: "respectability" was not a requirement there.

In 1894, the Asylum changed its name to Old Marion Street Maternity Hospital. It continued operating until it merged in 1899 with New York Infant Asylum, taking the latter's name and more enlightened admission policies. New York Infant Asylum joined with Nursery and Child's Hospital in 1910 to form New York Nursery and Child's Hospital, which became a part of New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in 1934.

The annual reports include lists of officers, governors, committees, and medical staff, medical reports, reports on nursing services and activities, hospital and medical statistics, donor and donation lists, and bylaws. Entire volumes can be easily searched by keywords. Our digital collections are available online on the Internet Archive. The digitization was made possible from a Digital Conversion MicroGrant from the Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO).

Rosemary A. Stevens, PhD, MPH DeWitt Wallace Distinguished Scholar, WCMC Institute for the History of Psychiatry, will present the Heberden society lecture on Wednesday, February 26, 2014, at 5:00 pm.

Inventing the Veterans Administration, Who, How and Why? 1921-1924
Wednesday, February 26, 2014, 5:00 p.m. (Light refreshments at 4:45)

Uris Faculty Room (A-126)
Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue

Rosemary A. Stevens, PhD, MPH (Yale) is DeWitt Wallace Distinguished Scholar in Social Medicine and Public Policy at Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Psychiatry. She is also the Stanley I. Sheerr Professor Emeritus in Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Stevens has chaired or been a member of national policy committees on subjects as diverse as national blood policy, for-profit health care, physician assistants and nurse practitioners, alternative medicine, graduate medical education payments, and Medicare as social contract. She has served as a public member on the National Board of Medical Examiners, the American Board of Pediatrics, and the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, and is currently a public member of the American Board of Medical Specialties. She has won national awards in the history of medicine, history of public health, and health services research. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Sciences and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Stevens has published six books and numerous articles on topics such as the history of medical practice in England, the history of specialization in American medicine, the early implementation of Medicaid, physician migration policy and its implications, and the history of American hospitals. Her current research focuses on the formal organization of specialization in American medicine today, and the public roles and self-regulatory structures of the medical profession.

The Heberden Society, which seeks to promote an interest in the history of medicine, was founded at the medical center in 1975. With funding from the WCMC Office of the Dean, the society sponsors a series of lectures during each academic year.

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We've completed the digitization of the annual reports of two more antecedent institutions of NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center that are now accessible online via the Internet Archive; the Nursery and Child's Hospital Annual Reports, 1854-1909 and the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital Annual Reports, 1910-1934. The digitization was made possible from a micro-grant from the Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO).

The Nursery and Child's Hospital The Nursery for the Children of Poor Women opened in 1854 on St. Mark's Place (in Manhattan) to provide day care for children of wet-nurses and other working parents. Originally, its purpose was to aid "worthy" working women, and proof of marriage and good character of the mother were required for admission. Rates charged were a percentage of the mother's income, and any child not picked up at the end of the day was sent to the city's Alms House. The focus of the institution shifted quickly from day care to medical care of neglected and abandoned infants and of poor pregnant women. In 1857, the name was changed to the Nursery and Child's Hospital. After a short stay in temporary quarters on Sixth Avenue, the hospital moved to a permanent location at corner of 51st Street and Lexington Avenue in 1859, where pediatric and lying-in facilities (childbirth facilities) were provided. It also maintained a Country Branch for children 4 years of age and older on Staten Island from 1870 to 1905. The Nursery and Child's Hospital was also known for its gala charity balls and other fundraising events. In 1910, the Nursery and Child's Hospital merged with the New York Infant Asylum to form the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital.

The Nursery and Child's Hospital annual reports include medical reports, lists of officers and managers, lists of physicians, donation lists, financial reports, secretary's reports, constitution, bylaws, rules, and photographs. The 45th Annual Report (1898) details the annual yield of vegetables grown at the hospital's Country Branch on Staten Island [link to page in annual report]. The garden provided nearly all of the vegetables for the hospital's Country Branch and City House for the entire year. The yields for 1898 (tomatoes, potatoes, rutabagas, carrots, cabbage, sweet potatoes, sweet corn and so much more) should inspire current urban farmers in the city.

Here is a photo from our Photograph Collection of the Country Branch of the Nursery and Child's Hospital on Staten Island circa 1890:

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The New York Nursery and Child's Hospital The New York Nursery and Child's Hospital was founded in 1910 through the consolidation of the Nursery and Child's Hospital and the New York Infant Asylum. It maintained buildings at Lexington Avenue and 51st Street and at Amsterdam Avenue and 61st Street until 1913, when the Amsterdam branch was expanded and the Lexington branch was closed. Like its predecessors, the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital focused its attention on the care of women and children. It maintained a lying-in hospital, a hospital for sick children, a nursery and home for foundlings and poor children, a boarding-out service to place children in homes, an obstetrical department for at-home care, and a training program for nurses and nursery maids. It also continued the tradition of annual charity balls for fundraising, which was started in 1856 by the Nursery and Child's Hospital. In 1934, the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital merged with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, with the exception of its foster home department, which continued functioning separately.

Also in the Medical Center Archives are other materials documenting the Nursery and Child's Hospital and the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital. We hold admission and discharge records, account books, minutes, casebooks, charity ball records, donation records, financial records, medical reports, and necropsy (autopsy) reports.

A helpful way to access our digital collections on the Internet Archive is to browse by subject/keywords. Up next for digitization are the annual reports of the New York Asylum for Lying-In Women, 1824-1899 and more of the Society of Lying-In Hospital of the City of New-York annual reports, 1932-1950, documenting the period when the Lying-In Hospital and the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center became affiliated in 1932 and the eventual merger in 1947, forming the Hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

P04929.jpg [P-04929] The photograph shows the Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary building which was located at 327 E. 60th Street, between First and Second Avenues.

The annual reports of two antecedent institutions of NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center that eventually merged into the hospital and medical center have been digitized and are now accessible online via the Internet Archive. The digitization was made possible from a Digital Conversion MicroGrant from the Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO).

The Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary was incorporated in 1901 and the first patients were admitted to the newly constructed building on February 16, 1905. When it opened the building had 35 beds, 5 of which were reserved for private patients; the remainder of the beds were for "charity" patients. Besides the private rooms and patient wards, the five-story building included a laboratory, a nursery, a student's dormitory, an amphitheater, and a tiled roof patio (you can view the floor plans in the annual reports). According the the institution's first annual report, the purpose of the Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary was to "render help to all those in need at the time of confinement, irrespective of creed, nationality, or color." The institution also had a training school for nurses. In addition to their classes and lectures, the nursing students attended the Cornell University Clinics held at the hospital. In 1932, the Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary merged into New York Hospital to form the Pediatrics Department.

The New York Infant Asylum was chartered in 1865 for the purpose of caring for abandoned, orphaned, or unwanted children or children whose parent/parents could not care for them due to poverty or other reasons. [A statement preceding the annual report from 1872 claims that between 2,500 to 3,000 children were born out of wedlock in New York City in 1870.] The first location of the Asylum was located at West 106th Street in Manhattan. In 1871, the New York Infant Asylum moved to a new location at 24 Clinton Place and there it added a lying-in department (an old term for a place for childbirth) and childcare training for mothers. In 1872, the Asylum opened a Country Home in Flushing, Queens, N.Y. and then another home in Mt. Vernon, N.Y. The Asylum took care of the children until the parent/s could care for them, arranged for adoptions, or cared for them until they were adults. In 1899, the New York Asylum for Lying-In Women was absorbed into the lying-in department of New York Infant Asylum. In 1909, the New York Infant Asylum and the Nursery and Child's Hospital consolidated to form New York Nursery and Child's Hospital, which became part of New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center (now NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center) in 1934. Whew.

The annual reports provide information about the institutions and the services they provided. Medical reports, medical statistics, demographic information, information regarding training of medical professionals, donation and membership lists, and lists of medical and house staff are usually included in the reports. A helpful way to access our digital collections on the Internet Archive is to browse by subject/keywords. Up next for digitization are the annual reports of the Nursery and Child's Hospital and the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital.

Happy New Year!

Nothing beats ringing in the New Year than joining in on a celebratory party to reflect on the year past and welcome in the new one. A quick perusal through the Medical Center Archives' photograph collections (much of it is now available online) affirms that faculty, staff, and students at the Hospital and Medical College over the years knew how to get their party on. To help get you into a festive mood, here are some shots of past students, faculty, staff, and yes, even the administration, making merry.

We too in the Archives will be taking New Year's Day off to celebrate 2014 properly. The Archives will close at 3pm today (December 31st) and will remain closed through Wednesday, January 1st. We will reopen on January 2nd. We look forward to assisting you in 2014.

Wishing you a Happy and Healthy New Year!

Thumbnail image for P08845.jpg [P-08845] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology party, circa 1950. The Lying-In Hospital affiliated with New York Hospital in 1927 to create the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the new medical center. It did not become officially merged until the 1940s. After the merger, the Department continued to be referred to as the Lying-In Hospital. People identified: Elmer Kramer, Richard Ruskin, and Carl Javert. From the Roy W. Bonsnes, PhD Papers.

Thumbnail image for P09102.jpg [P-09102] Residents' party, 1940s. From the Department of Dermatology Records (Farrington Daniels, Jr., MD)

P01029.jpg [P-01029] Party animals - The Joint Administrative Board, undated. The Joint Administrative Board was the board for the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. The Third Century Program is being unveiled. People in the photo include: Dr. Joseph Hinsey, Edward Bourne, Louis Loeb, and Francis Kernan.

P11986.jpg [P-11986] David Skinner, MD on the dance floor, undated. David Skinner came to the medical center as the President/CEO of the New York Hospital (NYH) in 1987. During his tenure, he oversaw the merger between NYH and Presbyterian Hospital. At the same time, he was appointed Professor of Surgery/Attending Surgeon. When the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery was formed in 1993, he was Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery/Attending Cardiothoracic Surgeon. He retired from the President/CEO position in 1999 but continued his positions at the Medical College and Hospital's Department of Surgery and Cardiothoracic Surgery. From David Skinner, MD Papers.

P05416.jpg [P-05416] Student nurses (Class of 1964) partying, circa 1964. The Archives holds records of the New York Hospital School of Nursing/Cornell University-New York Hospital School of Nursing. Visit our website for a partial list of holdings.

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Photo: Christmas tree in the Children's Ward of the second New York Hospital building (designed by George B. Post). This building was used from 1877 until 1932 when the current NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital building opened in 1932. [P-00359]

The Medical Center Archives will be closing at 3pm on December 24th and will remain closed on Wednesday, December 25th. We will reopen on Thursday, December 26th.

Wishing you the merriest!

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We've just finished up the digitization of institutional publications documenting institutions related to NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The Cornell University Medical Announcements, 1960-1985, are available online via the Internet Archive. From February 2013 to November 2013, 59 physical volumes, consisting of 27,020 pages and 126 foldouts were scanned. These annual reports and announcements document the establishment and evolution of hospitals, medical education, and nursing in New York City and in the United States. The digitization was made possible through a micro-grant from the Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO).

We are also pleased to announce that the Medical Center Archives is the recipient of another digitization micro-grant from METRO. This round will be documenting women's health care and graduate education in New York City. Annual reports from the New York Asylum for Lying-In Women (1824-1908), the New York Infant Asylum (1872-1908), the Nursery and Child's Hospital (1854-1909), the New York Nursery and Child's Hospital (1910-1934), the Society of the Lying-In Hospital (1832-1948), and the Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary (1905-1932), which merged with New York Hospital in 1932 to become the Pediatrics Department, will be digitized. Already hot off the scanner are 28 volumes of Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences Announcements, 1954-1989.

We'll keep you posted as more digital collections become available. The Medical Center Archives' digital collections are also part a much larger and ever-growing digital collection from the Medical Heritage Library, a "digital curation collaborative among some of the world's leading medical libraries, [promoting] free and open access to quality historical resources in medicine."

Jacalyn Duffin, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FRSC, Professor and Hannah Chair of the History of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, will present the Heberden Society Lecture on Tuesday, December 10, 2013, at 5:00 p.m.

Medical Miracles: Doctors, Saints, and Healing in the Modern World
Tuesday, December 10, 2013. 5:00 p.m. (light refreshments at 4:45)
Uris Faculty Room (A-126)
Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue

Asked to read a set of bone marrows from a patient with leukemia, hematologist Duffin was surprised to learn that the case was being considered by the Vatican as a miracle for a canonization. The experience led her in her guise as historian to investigate 1400 miracles used for canonizing saints during the last four centuries. The results show that medicine is and has always been deeply involved in the process. It also inspired her to trace the veneration of the twin doctor saints Cosmas and Damian from their 4th century origins to the streets of Toronto in our own time.

Jacalyn Duffin, MD (Toronto), FRCP(C), PhD (Sorbonne), FRSC, a hematologist and historian, occupies the Hannah Chair of the History of Medicine at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. A former President of both the American Association for the History of Medicine and the Canadian Society for the History of Medicine, she is author of eight books and holds several awards for research, writing, teaching, and service. Her most recent book is Medical Saints: Cosmas and Damian in a Postmodern World (Oxford U Press, May 2013). A revised and expanded second edition of her popular textbook for medical students appeared in 2010: History of Medicine: a Scandalously Short Introduction (U Toronto Press). She holds fellowship in the Royal Society of Canada (2012) and in the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (2013). Her current clinical activity is in breast cancer, and she participates in an award-winning research project on music memory and dementia.

The Heberden Society, which seeks to promote an interest in the history of medicine, was founded at the medical center in 1975. With funding from the WCMC Office of the Dean, the society sponsors a series of lectures during each academic year.

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